Phytophthora Ramorum is a fungus-like organism that can infect and kill a wide range of plants and trees. It is also known as sudden oak death, as it was first discovered in California in the 1990s, where it caused the death of millions of oak trees. It was later detected in Europe, where it mainly affects rhododendrons, larches, and beeches. It was first found in Ireland in 2002, on rhododendrons in a garden centre, and later in 2010, on larches in a forest plantation.
Phytophthora Ramorum causes lesions or cankers on the bark of the infected plants and trees, which ooze a dark red or black liquid. The lesions can girdle the stem and cause the plant or tree to wilt and die. The organism also produces spores that can infect the leaves and needles of the host plants and trees, causing them to turn brown and fall off. The spores can be dispersed by wind, rain, or water, and can infect other plants and trees nearby or downstream. The disease can affect plants and trees of any age and in any setting, but it is more severe in wet and humid conditions.
Phytophthora Ramorum is a serious threat to the health and diversity of the Irish forests and woodlands, as it can infect and kill many native and non-native tree species. The most affected tree species in Ireland is the larch, which is widely planted for timber and amenity purposes. Larches are highly susceptible to the disease and can act as a source of spores for other plants and trees. The disease has already infected and killed thousands of hectares of larch plantations in Ireland, and poses a risk to other valuable tree species, such as oak, beech, and birch.
Phytophthora Ramorum also has a negative impact on the environment, as it reduces the biodiversity and ecosystem services of the forests and woodlands. It can affect the habitats and food sources of many wildlife species, such as birds, mammals, and insects. It can also affect the water quality and quantity, as infected trees can increase the runoff and erosion of the soil. It can also affect the carbon balance, as dead trees can release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Phytophthora Ramorum also has a negative impact on the economy, as it reduces the timber production and quality of the infected trees. It also increases the costs of forest management and protection, as infected trees have to be removed and destroyed, and new trees have to be planted and monitored. It also affects the recreation and tourism value of the forests and woodlands, as infected trees can reduce the aesthetic and amenity value of the landscape.
There is no cure or effective treatment for Phytophthora Ramorum, so the main focus is on preventing the spread of the disease and finding ways to mitigate its impacts. Some of the measures that have been taken or proposed include:
Banning the import and movement of plants and wood from infected areas.
Monitoring and reporting the presence and symptoms of Phytophthora Ramorum in forests, woodlands, and nurseries.
Removing and destroying infected plants and trees and debris to reduce the source of spores.
Promoting the planting of resistant or tolerant tree species to enhance the diversity and resilience of the forests and woodlands.
Supporting the research and development of new methods and technologies to detect and control the disease.
Raising awareness and educating the public about the importance and value of plants and trees and the threat of Phytophthora Ramorum.
How to identify Phytophthora Ramorum:
Look for lesions or cankers on the bark of the infected plants and trees, which are dark brown or black patches that may ooze a dark red or black liquid.
Look for leaf or needle blight on the infected plants and trees, which are brown or black spots or blotches on the leaves or needles that may cause them to curl and fall off.
Look for signs of wilting or dieback on the infected plants and trees, which are the loss of leaves, needles, or branches in the upper or lower part of the plant or tree.
How to treat Phytophthora Ramorum:
There is no chemical or biological treatment available for Phytophthora Ramorum.
The best option is to remove and destroy infected plants and trees and debris, preferably by burning or burying them on site.
If removal is not possible or desirable, the infected trees should be isolated and monitored for signs of deterioration.
The infected trees should not be used for firewood, timber, or hurleys, as this can spread the disease to other areas.
The infected trees should not be pruned or cut, as this can create wounds that can facilitate the infection or spread of the organism.
Phytophthora Ramorum is a deadly threat to Irish forests and woodlands, and requires urgent and coordinated action to prevent and control its spread. By working together and taking action, we can help to protect and preserve the plants and trees that are part of our heritage and identity.